Abstract This essay is an attempt to a deconstructive interpretation of Okonkwo in Chinua Achebe’s “Things Fall Apart”. It begins by reviewing literary comments on Chinua Achebe and later dovetails an explication of the meaning of deconstruction as a way of enabling to grapple with the realities of this post structuralist critical formulation. This essay observes that Okonkwo is not only a brutal cannibal but also a barbarian. This refers to the backdrop of his penchant for killing as shown in the novel. This opinion is buttressed by Okonkwo’s ruthless habit of drinking from his first human head, which is a tilled smack of cannibalism. Based on the theory of deconstruction, it concludes that the scientific reading relies only on the text which functions as the real mirror of society which literature is all about.                                                                                                                     Keywords : post-structuralism, deconstruction, cri


Abstract Gray’s “Elegy written in Country Churchyard” is a product of Transition period. Therefore it is a blend of two literary trends; Classicism and Romanticism. This article deals with elements of nature, melancholy and sympathy for the poor which are the main characteristics or Romanticism. I. INTRODUCTION Gray is no doubt a classicist, but was sensitive to impending trends of Romanticism which soon came to eclipse classicism. Gray began to shift his attention from suffocated town to pristine country side with its green pasture, where cattle graze, rivers run, birds chirp, breezing winds blow that create peaceful atmosphere of rural area. The setting of country side opens our eyes to simple life of poor people. They live in poverty and this has crushing effect on their life. They are never able to get rid of the poverty. In fact humble, people of country side have innate gifts and latent ability but because they have no opportunity to develop their potentials, remains undeveloped.


Abstrak Hubungan sex merupakan kegiatan sakral yang dilakukan dengan penuh kasih sayang oleh pasangan suami istri untuk melanjutkan keturunan. Namun pada “The Waste Land” karya T.S.Eliot, sex telah berubah fungsi. Sex digunakan sebagai alat pemuas birahi, obat menghilangkan stress dan bahkan diperdagangkan sebagai barang komersial untuk memperoleh keuntungan materi. Penyimpangan sex tersebut menyebabkan kemandulan peradaban modern. Eliot menyerukan pembersihan spiritual sebagai solusi masalah tersebut. Namun masyarakat modern tak terketuk hatinya karena terbius oleh kenikmatan duniawi semata. Keywords: sexual perversion, moral values, guilty love, sex exploitation INTRODUCTION According to Eliot, sex is an important aspect of life. It is an expression of love and a means of procreation. But in modern society, sex has been perverted from its proper function and is utilized for animal pleasure and monetary benefits. Easy sexual relation could be found among all sections of the society.


Abstract The Raven , written by Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849), was published in ‘’The New York Paper’’ in 1845. It is entirely the dominant sentiment of Poe’s life, the longing and regret for a beautiful love whom he had known. The poem consists of 18 six-line stanza, the first five-lines of each being in trochaic octameter, and the sixth line trochaic tetrameter. The rhythm is varied frequently, caused by effects of double rhyme and alliteration. The rhyme scheme is abcbb, wherein the b rhymes are based on the constant refrain, Nevermore, which are merged in Poe’s favourite theme of grief occasioned by the death of a beautiful woman, and the sonorous sound of the ‘’o’’ and ‘’r’’ in the refrain itself. The poem contains salient qualities of Romanticism. The poet, steeped in melancholy memories of a lost love, is haunted by the death in the guise of a raven. With the learned imaginative literature, The Raven has taken rank over the whole world, especially in the American Conti

Three Unities in "Volpone" by Ben Jonson

Abstract This article is an attempt to observe Ben Jonson’s adherence to the Greek concept of Three Unities as a means to contribute to the realism of a play. It begins by introducing the three unities, i.e The Unity of Time, The Unity of Place, and The Unity of Action, and later fits together an explication of the meaning as well as the significance of the three unities as the actual practice of the Greek dramatists. This article observes that Ben Jonson obviously holds on the formula of the Three Unities in the play. It is seen in the play that the story takes place only in one place, that is in a city named Venice . The action confines to a single day, and has no digression. It goes directly to the climax of the plot. Key Words: The Unity of Time, The Unity of Place, The Unity of Action, Poetics, Renaissance, drama, tragedy, plot I. INTRODUCTION Greek and Latin drama are strict in form. The stage represents as a single place throughout the action; the plot recount


Abstract Things Fall Apart is an epic; it resembles stories about heroes in many cultures. In such stories, the heroes are extraordinary individuals, whose careers and destinies are not theirs alone, but are bound with the fortunes and destinies of their society. They become heroes by accomplishing great things for themselves and their communities, winning much fame as a result. In an epic story, the hero undergoes many tests, which we can see as rites of passage. This article presents how far this novel can fulfill Aristotle’s concept of tragedy as well as tragic hero through its tragic hero, Okonkwo. Okonkwo, the hero of the novel, fits this pattern. In Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo undergoes such tests, including the wrestling match with Amalinze the Cat, his struggle with the negative legacy of his father, and the struggle to succeed on his own. Keywords: tragedy, tragic flaw, hamartia, pity and fear, tragic hero, poetics, protagonist, catharsis I. IN

Deconstruction (2)

For the deconstructionist, all literary texts deconstruct themselves via binary oppositions that destroy each other. Deconstruction can be described as a theory of reading which aims at undermining the logic of opposition within the text. In the deconstructive reading, binary opposition must be identified. The deconstructionist always locates the point of contradiction imposed by its own realistic form within the text. For deconstructive criticism, nothing happens outside the text. Deconstruction is aimed at what goes on inside the text. Post-structuralism is of the view that text serves as the critical mirror for society. Otherwise, if we accept the system of reading whereby the reader’s knowledge of the author’s socio-political and cultural background informs our reading, then literature rather than being a mirror becomes a shadow.